Valgmuligheter i ungdomsskolen
In Norway optional subjects in lower secondary school are limited. With the latest reform in the 10-year compulsory school The Knowledge Promotion Reform implemented in 2006, available choices for pupils in lower secondary school are either foreign languages (in general German, French and Spanish) or in-depth studies in Norwegian, English and Sö¡mi. In addition, in the school year 2009/10 16 schools were invited to participate in an experiment, which offered the pupils training in practical subjects. This new alternative to foreign languages/in-depth studies is called working life skills. In 2010/11 additional 118 schools were invited to participate. This first part of the present report summarises the experiences of the newly arrived participants in the experiment with the working life skills in the beginning of the school year 2010/11. The second part of the present report summarises the experiences with the in-depth studies. Experiences with working life skills Analyses of quantitative data show that 19 percent of the pupils in the participating schools in 2010/11 chose working life skills (pupils in 8th grade). In average 14 pupils in each school involved in the experiment, have chosen the new subject, but the results show substantial variations in participants between the schools. More boys have chosen working life skills than girls, and according to interviews with headmasters/headmistress [school leaders] the working life skills subject recruit more often pupils with low grades/low school motivation than pupils with high grades/high school motivation. The school leaders are enthusiastic about the experiment with working life skills. According to the headmasters/headmistress, the teachers, pupils and their parents also receive this subject more positively. There are relatively few restrictions in how the schools carry out the training in working life skills, and the interviews with headmasters/ headmistress uncover three main approaches. The most common method is to present the pupils with a practical task or an activity that they have to carry out. During the school year the pupils are going to perform different tasks/activities. Another common approach is that the pupils are trained in different trades/occupations during the school year and that the pupils swap between different trades/occupations. The third approach, which is rare among the schools we have been in touch with, is to train the pupils in one (or perhaps two) trades/occupations. The training in working life skills often takes place at school the first year of training, but all the schools are planning periods of work experience placements. The present report is the first of three planned reports concerning the experiment with the working life skills. Experiences with in-depth studies in Norwegian, English and Sö¡mi Quantitative data show that one out of four pupils in 8th grade chooses one of the in-depth studies. In addition, more pupils change from foreign languages to in-depth studies during lower secondary education. The majority of the pupils has chosen the in-depth studies in English and only a small minority has chosen the in-depth studies in Sö¡mi. Based on quantitative data and interviews with headmasters/ headmistress, the in-depth studies in English, Norwegian and Sö¡mi recruit pupils with relatively low grades and/or low school motivation. However, analyses of the pupils’ grades show that the pupils who have chosen the in-depth studies are getting better grades in this subject compared to the grades their peers (with equal qualifications in other subject) obtain in their chosen foreign language. Mainly, the school leaders are dissatisfied with the in-depth studies and they told us that the training in these classes is difficult mainly because of a lack of motivation among the pupils. The impression is that the in-depth studies have become subjects for pupils who do neither find it interesting nor necessary to learn another language. In addition the leaders of the schools expressed that the competence aims in the in-depth studies are too ambitious due to the relatively high share with low achievers among the pupils. As a consequence, the training in these classes has become simpler than planned in the curriculum. The training in the in-depth studies has mainly become superficial and simple, according to the headmasters/headmistress. The present report is the final report on the in-depth studies in Norwegian, English and Sö¡mi.På ungdomsskolen kan elever velge fordypning i norsk, engelsk eller samisk som et alternativ til et nytt fremmedspråk. Skoleåret 2010/11 har elever på enkelte skoler også muligheten til å velge et praktisk fag, kalt arbeidslivsfaget. I denne rapporten kartlegges erfaringer med fordypningsfagene og arbeidslivsfaget. Første del handler om oppstartsfasen og implementeringen av arbeidslivsfaget slik dette så ut høsten 2010. Dette er den første av i alt tre planlagte evalueringer av arbeidslivsfaget. Den andre del av rapporten handler om hvilke elevgrupper som velger fordypningsfagene, og hvilke erfaringer skoleledere har med fagene. I rapporten analyseres kvantitative data fra nasjonale registre samt intervjumateriale fra 25 skoleledere.
- NOVA - Rapport